Lee Nichols, VP Content/Editor-in-Chief
Over the past few months, Egypt has signed several capital-intensive contracts to develop green H2 and green ammonia production capacity. These projects represent more than $30 B in capital costs and include the following:
These projects are in addition to Fortescue Future Industries’ (FFI’s) plan to build a 9.2-GW wind and solar farm to power green H2 production. The capital-intensive project is part of FFI’s goal of supplying 15 MMtpy of renewable H2 by 2030. Other projects include Fertiglobe, Scatec and Egypt’s Sovereign Fund’s 100-MW green H2 plant to be developed in Ain Sokhna. A final investment decision (FID) on the project is scheduled for 2023. If built, the facility will produce 15,000 tpy of H2 to be converted into 90,000 tpy of green ammonia.
In late Q4 2022, bp signed an agreement with Mauritania to study the development of green H2 projects in the country. As part of the agreement, bp is looking into building onshore wind and solar farms to feed green H2 production plants. According to bp, renewable production capacity could reach up to 30 GW, with the ability to produce 2 MMtpy of green H2.
Jackson Green announced plans to build a nearly $3-B green ammonia/H2 plant in Rajasthan, India. To be built in several phases, the plant’s total production is expected to reach 365,000 tpy of green ammonia and H2 once fully operational. This project is part of India’s goal of producing 5 MMtpy of green H2 by 2030.
In Karnataka, Acme is developing a 1.2-MMtpy green ammonia/H2 project. The nearly $6.4-B facility is scheduled to begin operations in 2027. Acme is building a similar plant, with a total installed cost of $6.6 B, in Tamil Nadu.
To help decarbonize the Upper Franconia region, Germany started operations on a 1,350-tpy green H2 plant. The plant receives feedstock from a renewable solar and wind farm in the Wunsiedel Energy Park. The produced H2 will be used in the region’s industrial, commercial and mobility sectors.
Maire Tecnimont’s subsidiary NextChem was awarded a pre-front-end engineering design (pre-FEED) contract for Madoqua Renewables’ MadoquaPower2X project. The 500-MW plant, located in Sines, Portugal, will produce 50,000 tpy of green H2 and green ammonia. NextChem’s scope of work includes pre-FEED engineering services, early studies, technology and process review, modularity and logistics analysis, and front-end loading of engineering required to undertake the permitting and licensing of the project.
Vopak has announced plans to convert LPG storage vessels at the Vlissingen terminal in the Netherlands to house green ammonia. According to the company, the plan includes converting two 55,000-m3 refrigerated LPG storage tanks to store ammonia. The terminal’s infrastructure will be connected to the Northwest European H2 network, which helps supply H2 to Belgium, the Netherlands and Germany.
Uniper awarded Technip Energies a FEED contract for the 500-MW H2Maasvlakte project in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. The facility will use a massive 500-MW electrolyzer to produce green H2. Uniper plans to start operations on the first 100-MW electrolyzer in 2025 and gradually ramp up to full capacity by the end of the decade. Technip Energies' scope of work includes the full FEED package, including the design for a large-scale water electrolysis system, the balance of the plant and site integration. The facility is part of the Netherlands’ goal of building 3 GW–4 GW of green H2 capacity by 2030.
thyssenkrupp is investing approximately $2 B to build a H2-powered direct-reduced iron (DRI) plant in Duisburg, Germany. The 2.5-MMtpy plant is scheduled to start operations in 2026. Once completed, the DRI plant will help decarbonize the steelmaking sector in the Ruhr region of Germany.
Lhyfe plans to install a 200-MW plant to produce 20,000 tpy of renewable green H2. The facility will be in Delfzijl, the Netherlands. Once operational, the facility will provide green H2 to industrial companies in the Delfzijl area. The project is part of Lhyfe’s goal of producing 3 GW of green and renewable H2 capacity by 2030.
Skovgaard Energy, Topsoe and Vestas announced that the consortium’s Power-to-X project in Lemving, Denmark has begun construction. The plant will use a Nel Hydrogen electrolyzer system. Once completed, the facility can produce 5,000 tpd of green ammonia.
Cadent awarded Kent a FEED contract for its UK H2 Village project. Cadent and British Gas are converting approximately 2,000 homes in the Whitby area from using natural gas to H2. Once completed, the project would be the first time a village-sized population in the UK would receive H2 through an existing underground gas distribution network. FID is expected this year.
Kent’s scope of work includes developing the FEED for a H2 supply compound, providing sufficient H2 buffer storage to meet intraday design peaks while complying with all safety regulations, and developing FEED for supporting infrastructure and utilities.
South Italy Green Hydrogen, a JV between Eni and Enel, are developing two green H2 projects in Italy. The first project includes the installation of a 20-MW electrolyzer in Eni’s Gela refinery on Sicily. The other project includes a 10-MW electrolyzer to be installed at Eni’s refinery in Taranto. The electrolyzers will be used to produce green H2 for use at the refineries. Both projects will help Eni decarbonize operations at both sites.
The Kazakh government has signed an agreement with Svevind to develop the Hyrasia One project in Kazakhstan. The $40-B–$50-B project includes the construction of a 40-GW solar and wind farm to supply feedstock to a 20-GW green H2 complex in an industrial park on the coast of the Caspian Sea. FID on the project is scheduled for 2026. If greenlighted, first production is expected in 2030. At full operations, the complex will produce up to 2 MMtpy of green H2 which will be used domestically, as well as for export to Asia and Europe.
The Middle Eastern nation plans to invest upwards of $140 B by 2050 to produce nearly 9 MMtpy of green H2. Oman has selected the regions of Duqm, Dhofar and Al-Jazir to establish green H2 production centers. At present, Oman produces around 325,000 tpy of green H2. The country plans to increase green H2 production to 3.75 MMtpy by 2040 and up to 8.5 MMtpy by 2050. The produced green H2 will be used domestically and for export.
Mitsubishi is evaluating locations in Alaska and Texas to develop blue ammonia production infrastructure. The Alaska project is a consortium of Mitsubishi, Toyo Engineering, Alaska Gasline Development and Hilcorp Alaska. If built, the project would use natural gas from Alaska’s North Slope to produce blue ammonia—the plant would also include carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology. The produced ammonia would be exported to markets in the Asia-Pacific region.
In Texas, Mitsubishi is studying the feasibility of developing blue ammonia production infrastructure in Corpus Christi. If built, the company plans to start operations on the blue ammonia hub in the early 2030s, ramping up production to around 10 MMtpy.
Air Products plans to invest $500 MM to build, own and operate a 35-tpd green liquid H2 production facility in Massena, New York. Commercial operations are expected to commence in 2026–2027. The facility will enable Air Products to use liquid H2 to fuel its truck fleet in the northeast U.S. The company has announced plans to convert its global fleet of approximately 2,000 trucks to H2 fuel cell zero-emissions vehicles.
Clean Energy Works and Hafnia are collaborating on a capital-intensive $7.5-B green H2-ammonia export project. To be near Donaldsonville, Ascension Parish, Louisiana, the plant will have a total installed capacity of 7.2 MMtpy once completed in late 2027. The facility will also incorporate CCS technology. The captured CO2 will be transported via pipelines and sequestered in deep underground storage caverns. The green H2 will be converted into ammonia and exported.H2T